Singforhope -for the first and only hour so far -herstory truly
takes centre stage at the US congress as th eyunus family reaches for gold
17, 2013: Muhammad Yunus receives the Congressional Gold Medal. His daughter, Soprano Monica Yunus, sings Stephen ...
the world as a jigsaw of trade and
- -up to 1500 the only maps were of an old world of asia europe and parts of
africa that faced the med sea;
- until about 1914 those who emigrated to the main new world continent N America
focused on building the states outwards from the North East landing points - then independently from 1776 (for many americans
the purpose of the old world was to escape from it to "free" the new one). While the word entreprenurship was born
in France (probably by JB Say around 1800) its late 20th century populated has been adjectivised by different and even conflicting
theorists. In searching out world recodr job creatirs we value the entrpreneur who not only invented something inspiring but
scaled a whole new world of productivity that improved the human lot exponentially sustaiing win-win trading opportunities.
As the inventi9r of telecommunications Alexander Graham Bell's life offers a detailed case of many dynamics - not least how
his emigration from scotland to USA via canada helped move USA to the forefront of 20th Communications but also in illustrating
why wise mations dont expect standardised classroom examinations to offer the space needed for insanely great inventive mindsets
to grow up.
- by 1900 american dream had started to become the world's most postive influence scientifically
and commercally -this rose and rose up to the moon race - 20th c america was the epicentre of amazing science even if
some of technologies main sources were jewish immigrants like einstein and von neumanns alumni; at the time of the moon race
my father started making his lifes work what "Entreprenurial Revolution" will shape human destiny "worldwide" if coms tech doubles every 7 yearsfrom 2030 to 1946 (that's over 4000
great song by John Lennon and one of the best.
and "LAB-HUB": As a child, young Bell displayed
a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting even at an early
age. His best friend was Ben Herdman, a neighbour whose family operated a flour mill, the scene of many forays. Young Bell
asked what needed to be done at the mill. He was told wheat had to be dehusked through a laborious process and at the age
of 12, Bell built a homemade device that combined rotating paddles with sets of nail brushes, creating a simple dehusking
machine that was put into operation and used steadily for a number of years. In
return, Ben's father John Herdman gave both boys the run of a small workshop in which to "invent".
his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art, poetry, and music that was encouraged by his mother.
With no formal training, he mastered the piano and became the family's pianist. Despite being normally quiet and introspective, he revelled in mimicry and "voice tricks" akin to ventriloquism that continually entertained family guests during their occasional visits. Bell was also deeply affected by his mother's gradual deafness (she began to lose her hearing when he was 12),
and learned a manual finger language so he could sit at her side and tap out silently the conversations swirling around the
family parlour. He also developed a technique of speaking in clear, modulated tones directly into his mother's forehead wherein
she would hear him with reasonable clarity. Bell's preoccupation with his mother's deafness led him to study acoustics.
family was long associated with the teaching of elocution: his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London, his uncle in Dublin, and his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists. His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of
which are still well known, especially his The Standard Elocutionist (1860), which appeared in Edinburgh in 1868. The Standard Elocutionist appeared in 168 British editions
and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone. In this treatise, his father explains his methods
of how to instruct deaf-mutes (as they were then known) to articulate words and read other people's lip movements to decipher meaning. Bell's father
taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound. Bell became so proficient that he became a part of his father's public demonstrations and astounded audiences
with his abilities. He could decipher Visible Speech representing virtually every language, including Latin, Scottish Gaelic, and even Sanskrit, accurately reciting written tracts without any prior knowledge of their pronunciation.
As a young child, Bell, like his brothers, received his early
schooling at home from his father. At an early age, he was enrolled at the Royal High School, Edinburgh, Scotland, which he left at the age of 15, having completed only the first four forms. His school record was undistinguished, marked by absenteeism and lacklustre grades. His main interest remained
in the sciences, especially biology while he treated other school subjects with indifference, to the dismay of his demanding
father. Upon leaving school, Bell travelled to London to live with his grandfather, Alexander Bell. During the year he
spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with long hours spent in serious discussion and study. The elder
Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak clearly and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil
would need to become a teacher himself. At the age of 16, Bell secured a position as a "pupil-teacher" of elocution and music, in Weston House Academy at Elgin, Moray, Scotland. Although he was enrolled as a student in Latin and Greek, he instructed classes himself in return for board and
£10 per session. The following year, he attended the University of Edinburgh; joining his older brother Melville who had enrolled there the previous year. In 1868, not long before he departed for Canada
with his family, Bell completed his matriculation exams and was accepted for admission to University College London.
His father encouraged Bell's interest in speech and, in 1863, took his sons to see
a unique automaton developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen. The rudimentary "mechanical man" simulated a human voice. Bell was fascinated by the machine and after
he obtained a copy of von Kempelen's book, published in German, and had laboriously translated it, he and his older brother
Melville built their own automaton head. Their father, highly interested in their project, offered to pay for any supplies
and spurred the boys on with the enticement of a "big prize" if they were successful. While his brother constructed the throat and larynx, Bell tackled the more difficult task of recreating a realistic skull. His efforts resulted in a remarkably lifelike head
that could "speak", albeit only a few words. The boys would carefully adjust the "lips" and when a bellows forced air through the windpipe, a very recognizable "Mama" ensued, to the delight of neighbours who came to see the Bell invention.
by the results of the automaton, Bell continued to experiment with a live subject, the family's Skye Terrier, "Trouve". After he taught it to growl continuously, Bell would reach into its mouth and manipulate the dog's lips and vocal cords to produce a crude-sounding "Ow ah oo ga ma ma". With little convincing, visitors believed his dog could articulate
"How are you, grandma?" Indicative of his playful nature, his experiments convinced onlookers that they saw a "talking
dog". These initial forays into experimentation with sound led Bell to undertake his first serious work on the transmission
of sound, using tuning forks to explore resonance.
age 19, Bell wrote a report on his work and sent it to philologist Alexander Ellis, a colleague of his father (who would later be portrayed as Professor Henry Higgins in Pygmalion). Ellis immediately wrote back indicating that the experiments were similar to existing work in Germany, and also
lent Bell a copy of Hermann von Helmholtz's work, The Sensations of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music.
to find that groundbreaking work had already been undertaken by Helmholtz who had conveyed vowel sounds by means of a similar
tuning fork "contraption", Bell pored over the German scientist's book. Working from his own erroneous mistranslation
of a French edition, Bell fortuitously then made a deduction that would be the underpinning of all his future work on transmitting
sound, reporting: "Without knowing much about the subject, it seemed to me that if vowel sounds could be produced by
electrical means, so could consonants, so could articulate speech." He also later remarked: "I thought that Helmholtz
had done it ... and that my failure was due only to my ignorance of electricity. It was a valuable blunder ... If
I had been able to read German in those days, I might never have commenced my experiments!"[N 6]
In 1865, when the Bell family moved to London, Bell returned to Weston House as an assistant master and, in his spare hours, continued experiments on sound using
a minimum of laboratory equipment. Bell concentrated on experimenting with electricity to convey sound and later installed
a telegraph wire from his room in Somerset College to that of a friend. Throughout late 1867, his health faltered mainly through exhaustion. His younger brother, Edward "Ted,"
was similarly bed-ridden, suffering from tuberculosis. While Bell recovered (by then referring to himself in correspondence as "A. G. Bell") and served the next year
as an instructor at Somerset College, Bath, England, his brother's condition deteriorated. Edward would never recover. Upon his brother's death, Bell returned home
in 1867. His older brother Melville had married and moved out. With aspirations to obtain a degree at University College London, Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family's residence
to studying.Helping his father in Visible
Speech demonstrations and lectures brought Bell to Susanna E. Hull's private school for the deaf in South Kensington, London. His first two pupils were deaf-mute girls
who made remarkable progress under his tutelage. While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including
opening his own elocution school, applying for a patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher.
However, in May 1870, Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, causing a family crisis. His father had also suffered
a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland. Bell's parents embarked upon a long-planned move when they realized
that their remaining son was also sickly. Acting decisively, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of
all the family property,[N 7] conclude
all of his brother's affairs (Bell took over his last student, curing a pronounced lisp), and
join his father and mother in setting out for the "New World". Reluctantly, Bell also had to conclude a relationship with Marie
Eccleston, who, as he had surmised, was not prepared to leave England with him.